Jump to navigation. In the phonetic alphabet, a single symbol or letter corresponds to a single sound, unlike the traditional alphabets of English or French. The phonetic alphabet is provided here as a means for indicating pronunciation more consistently and precisely. Note that a single French sound may correspond to several different spellings or combinations of letters. Vowels which are replaced by an apostrophe in the writing system are said to be elided.
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The International Phonetic Alphabet was created soon after the International Phonetic Association was established in the late 19th century. It was intended as an international system of phonetic transcription for oral languages , originally for pedagogical purposes. The prototype of the alphabet appeared in Phonetic Teachers' Association b. The alphabet has undergone a number of revisions during its history, the most significant being the one put forth at the Kiel Convention in The extensions to the IPA for disordered speech were created in , with its first major revision approved in Originally the letters had different phonetic values from language to language.
As of May and November , the alphabets were as follows:  . In the August—September issue of its journal, the Phonetic Teachers' Association published a standardized alphabet intended for transcription of multiple languages, reflecting its members' consensus that only one set of alphabet ought to be used for all languages,  along with a set of six principles:.
The principles would govern all future development of the alphabet, with the exception of 5 and in some cases 2,  until they were revised drastically in The devised alphabet was as follows. The letters marked with an asterisk were "provisional shapes", which were meant to be replaced "when circumstances will allow". During the s, the alphabet was expanded to cover sounds of Arabic and other non-European languages which did not easily fit the Latin alphabet.
Throughout the first half of the s, the Association published a series of booklets outlining the specifications of the alphabet in several languages, the first being a French edition published in Initially, the charts were arranged with laryngeal sounds on the left and labial ones on the right, following the convention of Alexander Melville Bell 's Visible Speech.
Not all letters, especially those in the fricatives row which included both fricatives in the modern sense and approximants , were self-explanatory and could only be discerned in the notes following the chart, which redefined letters using the orthographies of languages wherein the sounds they represent occur. For example:. It was emphasized, however, that such details need not usually be repeated in transcription.
This allows us to dispense almost completely with the modifiers, and with a good many other signs, except in scientific works and in introductory explanations. We write English fill and French fil the same way fil ; yet the English vowel is 'wide' and the French 'narrow', and the English l is formed much further back than the French. In the Aim and Principles of the International Phonetic Association , the first of its kind in English, the chart appeared as: . Laryngeal consonants had also been moved around, reflecting little understanding about the mechanisms of laryngeal articulations at the time.
Following , sets of specifications in French appeared in and , with little to no changes. For the first time, labial sounds were shown on the left and laryngeal ones on the right: . For the first time, affricates, or " '[a]ssibilated' consonant groups, i. The book also mentioned letters "already commonly used in special works", some of which had long been part of the IPA but others which "have not yet been definitively adopted": .
It also introduced several new suprasegmental specifications: . In , A. Gimson wrote to a colleague:. This number, however, was the last for some years because of the war. The letters were thus introduced in a somewhat unusual way, without the explicit consent of the whole Council of the Association.
They were, however, generally accepted from then on, and, as you say, were used by Professor Doke in I have consulted Professor Jones in this matter, and he accepts responsibility for their invention, during the period of the First World War. In April , 12 linguists led by Otto Jespersen , including IPA Secretary Daniel Jones , attended a conference in Copenhagen and proposed specifications for a standardized system of phonetic notation.
In , the following letters were adopted: . The following letters, which had appeared in earlier editions, were repeated or formalized: . The vowels were now arranged in a right-angled trapezium as opposed to an isosceles trapezium , reflecting Daniel Jones 's development of the Cardinal Vowel theory.
Other Sounds. Aspirated plosives: ph , th , etc. Length, Stress, Pitch. A new chart appeared in , with a few modifications. A new chart appeared in , reflecting minor developments up to the point. They were: . The Principles of the International Phonetic Association was the last installment in the series until it was superseded by the Handbook of the IPA in None of these specifications were inherited in the subsequent charts.
Since its introduction in , the letter was widely adopted by American linguists and the IPA had been asked to recognize it as part of the alphabet. In , a revised chart appeared, incorporating the developments in the alphabet which were made earlier in the decade: .
The following changes were approved in . On the same occasion, the following letters and diacritics were removed because they had "fallen into disuse": . The name of the column "Dental and alveolar" was changed to "Dental, alveolar, or post-alveolar". By the s, phonetic theories had developed so much since the inception of the alphabet that the framework of it had become outdated. In addition to the revisions of the alphabet, two workgroups were set up, one on computer coding of IPA characters and computer representation of individual languages, and the other on pathological speech and voice quality.
The latter devised a set of recommendations for the transcription of disordered speech based on the IPA known as the Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet or extIPA, which was published in and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association , which now maintains it, in A drastically renewed chart of the alphabet reflecting decisions made at the convention appeared later in the year.
Additions were: . The affricate ligatures were withdrawn. The six principles set out in were replaced by a much longer text consisting of seven paragraphs. In , the Council approved the following changes: . The revised chart was now portrait-oriented. Catford had in mind when he proposed the central vowel changes In the updated chart, which was published in the front matter of the Handbook of the IPA , the subsections were rearranged so that the left edge of the vowel chart appeared right beneath the palatal column, hinting at the palatal place of articulation for [i, y] , as did in all pre charts, though the space did not allow the back vowels to appear beneath the velars.
The word "etc. The Handbook of the International Phonetic Association was the first book outlining the specifications of the alphabet in 50 years, superseding the Principles of the IPA. It consisted of just over pages, four times as long as the Principles.
Symbols to the right in a cell are voiced , to the left are voiceless. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. History of the IPA phonetic representation system. Front Mixed Back. Front Central Back. Front Back. Abercrombie, David Elements of General Phonetics. Edinburgh University Press. International Journal of American Linguistics. Part III.
Front matter. Ball, Martin J. Journal of the International Phonetic Association. The Hague and Paris: Mouton. Fundamental Problems in Phonetics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Daniel Jones: Selected Works. London: Routledge. American Speech. In Hardcastle, William J. The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences 2nd ed. Phonetic Transcription in Theory and Practice.
Language Sciences. International Phonetic Association International Phonetic Association a. Center pages. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 5 March Oxford University Press. In Heepe, Martin ed. Lautzeichen und ihre Anwendung in verschiedenen Sprachgebieten. Berlin: Reichsdruckerei. Jones, Daniel London: Linguaphone Institute.
History of the International Phonetic Alphabet
"alphabet phonétique international" in English