Brycon is a genus of fish in the family Characidae found in freshwater habitats in Central and South America , ranging from southern Mexico to northern Argentina. They feed heavily on fruits and seeds, but also take other plant material, invertebrates and small fish. Brycon support important fisheries and based on a review by IBAMA , they are the fifth most caught fish by weight in the Brazilian Amazon. There are currently 46 recognized species in this genus: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Species of Brycon in FishBase.
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Endoparasite fauna of Brycon amazonicus and B. Congeneric host species present similar biological and behavioral aspects, what may favor the presence of a similar parasite fauna.
The aim of the present study was to compare the composition and structure of the parasite community from congeneric species, Brycon amazonicus and B. The fish internal organs were longitudinally opened and analyzed under stereomicroscope. The examination revealed that B.
The analysis of B. These results indicate that the taxonomic proximity of the hosts was a stronger influence on the parasite species than external host environment.
O exame revelou que B. The Bryconinae subfamily includes 74 nominal species, 42 of which are from the genus Brycon , an important group in almost all Brazilian river basins, with several examples used in the aquaculture industry Bittencourt and Cox-Fernandes ; Gomes et al.
The similar diet may result on similar parasite faunas, as reported by a classic pattern, where the endoparasite species composition is influenced by the diet of the host Dogiel ; Morand et al. On the other hand, Santos et al. Consequently, these divergent migratory characteristics may affect the endoparasite fauna, as related species usually exhibit divergent characteristics that make the coexistence possible Dogiel ; Balassa et al.
The parasite fauna of these Brycon species is not yet well known - as most of the published studies regarding the parasite fauna of the Brycon genus were conducted on fish farms or were based on taxonomic descriptions Andrade et al. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the parasite fauna of two congeneric species will be more similar than the parasite fauna of two different environments. For this, it was analyzed the main characteristics of the endoparasites community, such as richness, abundance, diversity and dominance, from two species of Brycon genus.
Thirty specimens of B. Thirty one individuals of B. After the taxonomic identification of fish, the parasitological procedures were performed according to Eiras et al. The use of the terms 'component community' and 'infracommunity', as well as the calculation of the prevalence, mean intensity, mean abundance and richness value, were all according to Bush et al.
Prevalence is the number of hosts infected by a particular parasite species divided by the number of hosts examined. Mean intensity is the average intensity of a particular species of parasite among the infected host. Mean abundance is the total number of individuals of a particular parasite species in a sample of a particular host species divided by the total number of hosts of that species examined. The diversity was inferred according to the Brillouin index H to each infracommunity from each collection site Zar These H values were statistically compared by Kruskall-Wallis analysis on the R program version 3.
The analysis of the B. While P. The higher prevalence indices were observed in B. The parasite indexes demonstrated that Contracaecum type 1 was the most prevalent nematode observed for B. The higher prevalence levels were observed on P. Rhabdochona acuminata presented the lower levels of prevalence, with no record on Negro River. The Brillouin index demonstrated that the most diverse fauna was observed on both host species, B.
For B. It is commonly said that hosts with similar biological and behavioral aspects present similar parasite fauna Poulin , and this affirmation was corroborated by the results here presented. Regardless the fact that B. This conclusion is also reinforced by the absence of statistical differences on the parasite diversity between the collection sites, what evidences that different environments, with different physic-chemical characteristics, is not an impediment to similar parasite diversity for the parasite species observed on the present study.
Procamallanus S. Comparing these results with the present study it can be observed that the endoparasite fauna of Brycon species is not rich. Besides, some of these parasites, such as P.
The present study records for the first time the presence of Contracaecum larvae on Brycon species on the Amazon hydrographic basin, but this register only emphasizes the low specificity of this parasite, as this species has already been recorded on several host from the Amazon basin Thatcher This larva belongs to the Anisakidae family, a taxonomic group well known for its zoonotic potential.
The present study demonstrated that, despite the different rivers where the fishes were collected, the endoparasite fauna was similar. Corroborating the hypothesis, the taxonomic proximity of the hosts was a stronger influence on the parasite species than external host environment. Andrade, S. Acta Amazonica, Brazilian Journal of Biology, Balassa, G. Bittencourt, M. Peixes migradores sustentam pesca comercial.
Bush, A. Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. The Journal of Parasitology, Dogiel, V. Ecology of the parasites of freshwater fishes. In: Dogiel, A. Parasitology of fishes. Olivier e Boyd, Edinburgh, London, p.
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Parasitology, Moravec, F. Folia Parasitologica, Poulin, R. Evolutionary ecology of parasites. Princeton University Press. Santos, G. G; Zuanon, J. Peixes comerciais de Manaus. Thatcher, V. Amazon fish parasites. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, p. Zar, J. Biostatistical analysis. Upper saddle river, 3. Prentice Hall, Inc. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Journal. Artigos Endoparasite fauna of Brycon amazonicus and B.
Received: June 02, ; Accepted: July 01, How to cite this article.
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