LONG WAVE DIATHERMY PDF

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Metrics details. Delayed-onset muscle soreness DOMS is a specific symptom that typically arises after unaccustomed eccentric muscular effort. The pathophysiology of DOMS remains unclear, although it seems to be related to the remodeling phase of myofibrils. Different types of treatments have been proposed to minimize DOMS after exercise; however, no clear gold standard treatment exists. Among the most popular and easy-to-apply treatments, manual massage is often performed by clinicians and has been documented to be effective in reducing symptoms.

For several years, long-wave diathermy LWD has been performed to manage musculoskeletal complaints, such as DOMS; however, no studies have reported its efficacy thus far. Participants with lower limb DOMS were included in the study. Outcomes were collected before and immediately after the treatment. Analysis of variance was performed to compare the post-treatment NPRS value variability among the groups and to compare the pre- and post-treatment NPRS differences among the groups.

Future studies are needed to have a better understanding about the treatment of DOMS in clinical practice. The trial was registered on 29th February in ClinicalTrials. Delayed-onset muscle soreness DOMS is one of the most common complaints of clinicians working in the sports field [ 1 ].

DOMS has an impact on physical performance, as it affects coordination, muscle strength, and abilities to absorb shock [ 4 , 5 ]. Different treatments have been proposed to manage DOMS [ 6 ]. As the pathophysiology of DOMS is unclear and no clear gold standard treatment has been established for managing DOMS, treatments range from applying heat, cold, compression, and massage [ 6 , 7 , 8 ]. As DOMS affects physical performance, it is of utmost importance, especially in the field of professional sports, that athletes can be immediately relieved from DOMS so that they can be trained or can compete with the absence of such conditions.

Moreover, it is important for DOMS to be treated using easy-to-perform strategies, as sport teams are often engaged in traveling during competitions. Manual massage is considered one of the most common and easy-to-perform treatments to relieve DOMS in clinical practice, and many authors have described its applications [ 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ].

Moreover, long-wave diathermy LWD; also known as capacitive and resistive electric transfer therapy has recently received great clinical interest in the field of sports. LWD produces heat and is supposed to improve microcirculation flow and metabolic processes; however, currently, evidence of its presumed induced effect is insufficient.

Heat has been suggested to relieve DOMS [ 8 ]. Despite the wide use of LWD in clinical practice, since more than a decade, and a recent study on the effect of such treatment on recovery in recreational runners [ 13 ], a study that confirms the efficacy of such treatment in DOMS does not exist.

In this study, male athletes with lower limb DOMS were recruited. The participants were ski mountaineering racers who participated in a 3-day race, the 18th Millet Tour du Rutor Extreme Arvier, Italy.

The ski mountaineering alternate uphill phase with downhill free-ride ski exposing the athletes to highly sustained eccentric effort over the 3-days race Fig. The participants were treated during their rest time between stages while they were experiencing the peak phase of DOMS. The participants were excluded in this experiment if, during assessment, they complained of musculoskeletal or general health problems other than DOMS. Two senior-level physiotherapists, unaware of the group of treatments that participants would be assigned to, assessed the eligibility criteria in the study.

The participants were randomly assigned, using an online software program random. Sample size calculation was based on a mean change of 2 points in the Numerical Pain Rating Scale NPRS score, which is clinically relevant for musculoskeletal pain [ 14 ]. To detect a difference of 2 NPRS points, considering a standard deviation of 1. All the participants provided informed consent for inclusion in the study. The trial was preventively registered in ClinicalTrials.

The participants were randomly divided into three groups. The participants allocated to the manual massage group were treated with manual massage as described in another study 7. A min pain-free effleurage was performed in both limbs, with particular emphasis on the areas reported to be symptomatic with DOMS according to the athletes, was performed. The participants lay in the prone position for the treatment of the muscles of the posterior compartment of the lower limb hamstrings and triceps surae and in the supine position for the treatment of the muscles of the anterior compartment quadriceps and foot dorsiflexors.

The device producers directly gave the instructions in the performance of the technique. Participants were unaware that the device was switched-off, and two different operators performed the switching on and off of the LWD device; thus, also the operator performing the treatment was blinded.

To reduce bias caused by negative expectations that have been described to influence pain reports [ 15 ], in this study, both rLWD and sLWD groups started the treatment with the operator stating that the device was active.

Each participant in the experiment was asked to answer a NPRS questionnaire before and after receiving the treatments as a primary outcome. The athletes were instructed that NPRS can range from 0 no pain to 10 worst imaginable pain and then asked to score their pain.

The same score was requested immediately after they received the treatment. The NPRS has been provided to be a reliable tool for assessing the pain level in the musculoskeletal population [ 16 ].

In this study, data were analyzed using JASP 0. The manual massage group was composed of 19 participants; the rLWD group, 17 participants; and the sLWD group of 19 participants. The groups were comparable in relation to the demographic and pre-treatment outcome characteristics. As outlined, in general, few data on the effects of LWD on musculoskeletal disorders exist in the literature despite a common massive performance of such technique in the clinical setting.

In the literature, the effects of electrotherapies on DOMS have been investigated without significant results; however, no studies have considered LWD [ 22 , 23 , 24 ]. In the groups treated with LWD both real or sham , a wider range of post-treatment-reported perceptions measured using the PGIC Scale was referred than in the manual massage group.

The authors suggest the possibility that this outcome can be attributable to patient expectations in relation to treatment. The literature described how expectations and persuasion can interfere with perceptions of an event, influencing individual output and behavioral responses [ 25 , 26 ]. It could be of interest to the clinical practitioners to identify the participants who can benefit from the idea of receiving a strongly beneficial perceived treatment.

In the present study, after treatment, interventions as well as sham treatments produced similar results. Other treatments such as whole-body cryotherapy and cold water immersion with similar results to the present study on DOMS reduction have been described [ 27 ], but these modalities are more demanding from a logistical point of view than manual massage or LWD, especially for those who are engaged in traveling.

This study had several limitations, mainly related to the clinical context in which this data were acquired. Firstly, we did not defined a NPRS score as an inclusion criterion. This could have introduced heterogeneity among included participants; however, this was necessary in order to have the possibility to reach the a-priori calculated sample size. Secondly, we assessed the outcomes immediately after the provision of treatments, at rest, and no follow-up short or medium term was performed.

This could lead to an overestimation of the treatment effects, as DOMS is typically present during the movement. We made this choice in order not to disturb excessively the athletes involved in the competition. For the same reason, the number of assessed outcome was restricted. In future studies, it would be of interest to include physical outcomes related to DOMS, such as pain on stretch, muscle strength, or other functional outcomes as suggested in other papers [ 27 ]. Future studies, including further outcomes measures, are justified in order to find more effectiveness treatments for the DOMS.

Muscle soreness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. Clin Sports Med. Vickers AJ. Time course of muscle soreness following different types of exercise.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord. Re-evaluation of sarcolemma injury and muscle swelling in human skeletal muscles after eccentric exercise.

PLoS One. Proske U, Allen TJ. Damage to skeletal muscle from eccentric exercise. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. Eccentric exercise and delayed onset muscle soreness of the quadriceps induce adjustments in agonist-antagonist activity, which are dependent on the motor task. Exp Brain Res. Delayed onset muscle soreness: treatment strategies and performance factors. Sports Med. Whole-body cryotherapy extreme cold air exposure for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Google Scholar. Mechanisms and efficacy of heat and cold therapies for musculoskeletal injury. Postgrad Med. Effects of massage on delayed-onset muscle soreness. Chir Narzadow Ruchu Ortop Pol. Massage alleviates delayed onset muscle soreness after strenuous exercise: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Physiol. Effects of therapeutic massage on gait and pain after delayed onset muscle soreness. J Exerc Rehabil. Effect of massage on DOMS in ultramarathon runners: a pilot study.

J Bodyw Mov Ther. Effects of a capacitive-resistive electric transfer therapy on physiological and biomechanical parameters in recreational runners: a randomized controlled crossover trial. Phys Ther Sport. Minimal clinically important changes in chronic musculoskeletal pain intensity measured on a numerical rating scale. Eur J Pain. Colloca L. Nocebo effects can make you feel pain. A systematic review of the pain scales in adults: which to use?

Am J Emerg Med.

ECHO CYKELCOMPUTER MANUAL PDF

Long Wave Diathermy

Background: Delayed-onset muscle soreness DOMS is a specific symptom that typically arises after unaccustomed eccentric muscular effort. It increases typically h post-exercise and can affect physical performance. The pathophysiology of DOMS remains unclear, although it seems to be related to the remodeling phase of myofibrils. Different types of treatments have been proposed to minimize DOMS after exercise; however, no clear gold standard treatment exists. Among the most popular and easy-to-apply treatments, manual massage is often performed by clinicians and has been documented to be effective in reducing symptoms. For several years, long-wave diathermy LWD has been performed to manage musculoskeletal complaints, such as DOMS; however, no studies have reported its efficacy thus far.

BENJAMIN W.NIEBEL PDF

Metrics details. Delayed-onset muscle soreness DOMS is a specific symptom that typically arises after unaccustomed eccentric muscular effort. The pathophysiology of DOMS remains unclear, although it seems to be related to the remodeling phase of myofibrils. Different types of treatments have been proposed to minimize DOMS after exercise; however, no clear gold standard treatment exists. Among the most popular and easy-to-apply treatments, manual massage is often performed by clinicians and has been documented to be effective in reducing symptoms.

ESTRICNINA FARMACODINAMIA PDF

Diathermy is electrically induced heat or the use of high-frequency electromagnetic currents as a form of physical therapy and in surgical procedures. The earliest observations on the reactions of high-frequency electromagnetic currents upon the human organism were made by Jacques Arsene d'Arsonval. Diathermy is commonly used for muscle relaxation, and to induce deep heating in tissue for therapeutic purposes in medicine. It is used in physical therapy to deliver moderate heat directly to pathologic lesions in the deeper tissues of the body.

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