Xantholinus is a genus of the beetle family Staphylinidae , the rove beetles. They can be found throughout the world. The larvae of at least some species are bioluminescent. There are about species in this genus. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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This paper is the first inventory of the fauna of the rove beetle genus Quedius in the Russian Federation. It provides an annotated catalogue of 88 species of Quedius currently recorded from Russia, based on several collections and a critical evaluation of all earlier published records. All species are listed with a summary of their overall distribution and bionomics. Species distributions within Russia are given as lists of regions where they occur with references to the respective source collections or publications which any record is based on.
For that, the territory of Russia is divided into 40 regions that mostly follow the administrative division of the country. The annotated catalogue is supplemented by a well-illustrated identification key to all species and a concise checklist in form of an easily visualized table. Based on an analysis of literature and available material, records of Quedius cincticollis Kraatz, , Quedius humeralis Stephens, , Quedius maurorufus Gravenhorst , Quedius nemoralis Baudi de Selve, , Quedius nigrocaeruleus Fauvel, , and Quedius picipes Mannerheim, from Russia are considered doubtful.
For Quedius citelli Kirschenblatt, a lectotype is designated. For that species and Q. The paper stresses the currently poor state of knowledge of the Quedius diversity in Russia and provides a platform for its improvement, which should begin with a large-scale sampling program, especially in Siberia and Far East.
Quedius are very common inhabitants of the forest leaf and log litter, but they can also be found in other ground-based debris of open landscapes. Some species occur in mammal and bird burrows and nests, in the nests of ants and other wasps, or they are highly adapted to hypogean microhabitats.
The species of Quedius strongly vary in their landscape and microhabitat preferences, ecological tolerance and, as a result, in the types of their distributions. All these characteristics make Quedius commonly encountered beetles and a good model for ecological and biogeographic studies. Historically, the main focus of explorations of the Palearctic fauna, including studies of Quedius , has been its European part, while the rich and unique faunas of Asia were studied only patchily or remained unexplored.
In the last decades we have witnessed a growing interest in the Chinese Quedius Smetana and, recently, the Middle Asian fauna has been revised Salnitska and Solodovnikov a , b. With all this progress, the Quedius of Russia became a very obvious knowledge gap. As can be seen even from patchy recent publications Solodovnikov and Hansen ; Salnitska and Solodovnikov a ; Smetana and Shavrin , the geographically vast and diverse Russia hides numerous Quedius species which have not been recorded yet, or are even new to science.
To facilitate the badly needed exploration of Russian Quedius , we here make a synthesis of the current knowledge of this group within the Russian borders. It aims to structure and summarize all existing literature and the main collections of Russian Quedius specimens to assess the fauna, define the largest knowledge gaps and provide an easy platform for further research.
Russia is a country stretching through a large and extremely diverse geographic area Fig. Even though a considerable part of Russia is located within the less biologically diverse polar or boreal regions, its overall species diversity is high because of the multiple terrestrial ecosystems, landscapes and habitats meeting here. With respect to Quedius , very little is known about the Russian fauna. It is very difficult to initiate and advance studies in this direction because even the existing scarce taxonomic and faunistic literature relevant to Quedius in Russia is very fragmented, incomplete and, at most, applicable only to smaller regions of the country.
So far, reliable work can be done only by somebody with many years of experience. All existing catalogues that cover Russia provide little detail specifically for its territory.
For example, the catalogue of rove beetles of the former USSR and adjacent regions in Tikhomirova , a breakthrough for its time and listing species of Quedius , is now greatly outdated in terms of taxonomy and coverage.
Although Herman provided an extremely helpful summary of all main references from to for each species listed in his catalogue, information relevant for species in Russia is incomplete there. It is even more difficult to identify material collected in Russia. There were only two incomplete and now greatly outdated keys for the Quedius fauna of the European part of Russia: one with only eleven species Jacobson ; reproduced and updated in Bogdanov-Katkov, and the other with 50 species Kirshenblat Otherwise, identification of Russian Quedius specimens could be attempted with the aid of modern keys for Central European fauna Solodovnikov b , the outdated monograph of the West Palearctic Staphylinidae Coiffait , or the recent monograph of Quedius of China Smetana Needless to say that none of these keys can really work for the Russian fauna as a whole because at most one can key out only widespread species or those that occur in the immediate neighborhood to the geographic coverage of these keys.
The absence of good synoptic collections of Quedius that would be distributed in Russia, or at least accessible at the main Russian institutions, contributes to the impediment. All this motivated us to compile the present work, which is an identification key and an annotated catalogue of all species of Quedius that we have found in the fauna of Russia thus far, based on an exhaustive literature survey and examination of the main collections herein and abroad. Our publication is based on literature data and examination of specimens from several collections abbreviated as follows:.
To gather original distributional and reference data for this publication we used a custom made database implemented in Microsoft Access Our publication consists of three interconnected parts: 1 identification key to all Quedius species that occur in Russia; 2 annotated species list arranged by subgenera and alphabetically within each subgenus; and 3 a brief summary of distribution, abundance and source of data for each species in Russia in tabular format, with species arranged alphabetically across the entire genus.
The Russian Federation Fig. Kaliningrad Province, including its numerous small islands in the Baltic Sea, is the westernmost enclave separated from the rest of the country by Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. While the Crimea Republic is separated from the rest of Russia by the south-western part of Ukraine and the Kerch Strait. From north to south, Russia covers several climate zones from the arctic to subtropics.
Russian terrain consists of very diverse forms of relief ranging from high mountains such as Caucasus with Elbrus Mountain as the highest point in Russia at m, through Ural, Altai, Sayan, Sikhote-Alin, Verkhoyansk, and Chersky ranges, to the plains and lowlands such as European, west Siberian and north Sakhalin plains, or north Russian, Pskov, Cis-Kuban, Cis-Ilmen, Abyisk lowlands, or Kuznetsk Depression, and others.
Finding a system of subdivision for such a large and diverse area as Russia that is suitable for cataloguing purposes is complicated. Normally it is better to visualize species ranges via some biogeographic division reflecting natural geographic units or landscapes Kryzhanovsky et al.
Such an approach is feasible in the case of well-studied faunas, with clear distributions and bionomics of the species, as well as some widely agreed biogeographic scheme. Unfortunately, rove beetles and Quedius in particular are very poorly explored, while a widely agreed upon and detailed biogeographic division of Russia is even more of a problem.
In our case, the use of political administrative regions with unambiguous borders, standardized across various maps, is a viable solution. Additionally, records from local faunistic publications are usually restricted to such regions. Therefore, accepting them for our catalogue also simplifies the inventory of these publications. However, political divisions, especially in Russia, comprise units that are not always geographically homogeneous and may consist of very different, sometimes contrasting geographic regions.
A large river, a mountain ridge, or another natural barrier may cut a certain large administrative region as the Lena River does in Yakutia Sakha Republic, or Kulunda steppe in Altai Territory. On the contrary, some geographically uniform areas may be divided between several administrative regions such as the Ural Mountains, stretching through Yamalo-Nenets and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous districts, Tuymen, Sverdlovsk, and Chelyabinsk provinces.
Moreover, the denser populated European part of Russia is fractured into numerous and small administrative regions such as Orel Province or Mordovia Republic, whereas poorly populated Siberia consists of very large regions such as Yakutia Sakha Republic or Evenk Autonomous District.
To overcome these problems, we here divide Russia as in the Catalogue of Lepidoptera of Russia Sinev , which is mainly based on administrative political regions with minor amendments following geographic considerations Fig. In particular, groups of smaller geographically similar regions of European Russia are merged together, while some Siberian regions are subdivided in accordance with geographic barriers.
For the purposes of our catalogue, the composition of some administrative regions was changed according to geography, as follows: Arkhangelsk Province is divided into two regions, one consisting of Nenets Autonomous District with the Novaya Zemlya archipelago and the other covering the rest of its continental area. Tyumen Province is divided in two regions, west and east of Tobol and Irtysh rivers, respectively.
Altai Territory is divided into Kulunda steppe and the rest. Krasnoyarsk Territory, apart from Taymyr and Evenk Autonomous Districts, is divided into two regions, one north and one south of Sym River. Similarly, Khabarovsk Territory is divided in two regions, one north and one south of Uda River.
As a result, the Russian Federation here is divided into 40 regions abbreviated and listed alphabetically as follows. Summary list for Quedius species recorded from Russia. Species whose presence in the Russian fauna is strongly ambiguous are taken in square brackets. The first descriptions of new species from the territory of Russia were confined to the unique and rich fauna of the north-western Caucasus Eppelsheim a , b , ; Roubal Among other pioneering studies, Fauvel , Eppelsheim , , Bernhauer , and Roubal , described new species from Siberia and the Russian Far East.
Throughout the rest of the 20 th and the beginning of the 21 st centuries, the amount of taxonomic publications that touched upon Quedius of Russia significantly grew and included many species described from the Russian parts of the Caucasus Coiffait ; Solodovnikov , , Altai Mountains Coiffait ; Salnitska and Solodovnikov a , b , Siberia Kirschenblatt ; Coiffait ; Smetana b , , or Far East Solodovnikov and Hansen ; Smetana ; Smetana and Shavrin In addition to these taxonomic publications, there are faunistic publications accumulated over decades.
Usually these cover local faunas within political borders of various larger or smaller regions of Russia Shilov ; Shavrin ; Goreslavets et al. Often these papers were published in various local, hard-to-access outlets, and the quality of their underlying species identifications is variable.
Overall, the current knowledge about Quedius of Russia is very fragmented, both taxonomically and geographically and often it is hidden in the publications of a more inclusive scope, covering all Staphylinidae or even Coleoptera.
Summary statistics of the published records of Quedius in Russia. Numbers at the color bar indicate number of literature records, respectively. Summary statistics of the diversity of Quedius species in various regions of Russia.
Numbers at the color bar indicate number of species, respectively. It is noteworthy to mention that the genus Quedionuchus recently reinstated to this level Brunke and Solodovnikov is not included in this catalogue. Within subgenera, we list species alphabetically. Since the territory of Russia is very extensive, it is impossible to use any species groups developed only for local faunas from adjacent countries such as China Smetana At the species level, there are a number of taxonomic problems pending more detailed studies as well.
For example, Quedius umbrinus displays very strong morphological variation suggesting a complex of more than one species. On the other hand, species limits are not clear among some described species, to mention Q.
In case of Q. Our accepted concept of Quedius boops , Q. These three species are indistinguishable from each other by characters of external morphology. Genitalic differences are subtle, subject to variation and, together with geographic distribution, are interpreted here as follows. Two species, Q. Meanwhile, Q. At the same time, Q. Future examination of a larger amount of material using rigorous methods of molecular and morphometric species delimitation should bring more clarity about species limits in the Q.
Other species of the Russian fauna also pose various taxonomic problems, perhaps of a lower severity. In general, we deliberately avoided any taxonomic changes and nomenclatural acts here, pending their proper justification and implementation in the separate publications. These are traditional dichotomous keys that also include a succinct summary of the most important diagnostic and biological features for each species.
Often distributions or bionomics may be as helpful as morphology, especially for identification of closely related species. The overall structure of the key and some aedeagus illustrations are adopted from Solodovnikov Species whose presence in the Russian fauna is strongly ambiguous are placed in square brackets.
This annotated catalogue provides details about identity, general distribution, and bionomics of every species. Complete synonymies for each species can be found in the catalogue of Herman Here we list only synonyms proposed later and not accounted in that world catalogue.
Species distributions within Russia are given in the form of abbreviated regions from which a given species was recorded with reference to the respective literature or collection source. For easier navigation, abbreviations of the regions are listed alphabetically for each species.
Coleopteres Staphylinidae de la Region Palearctique Occidentale. Vol. 1-5
This etymology is followed by authors of other dictionaries. The more or less spherical shape of this black beetle combined with the fact that it exudes red haemolymph when alarmed could suggest a comparison with a grape. Carl von Linne, the creator of the binomial system of nomenclature, erected the genus Staphylinus in in his book Systema naturae, X. I , page He placed around twenty species into this genus, most of which are today placed in other genera in family Staphylinidae. Mike's insect keys.
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